Day 2 :
University of Birmingham, UK
Time : 09:00-09:35
Richard Tuckett completed his PhD in near-infrared spectroscopy in 1979. He first worked in electronic fluorescence spectroscopy of free radicals and molecular cations, often using supersonic beams and non-resonant electron excitation. From the late 1980s, he started using tunable vacuum-ultraviolet photon excitation from a synchrotron as a resonant ionisation source. In recent years he has studied the ionisation properties of long-lived greenhouse gases by threshold photoelectron and photoelectron photo-ion coincidence spectroscopy. Almost by accident, this has led him into atmospheric sciences and a wide interest in climate issues.
This talk arises from two articles recently accepted for publication by Elsevier in their Reference Modules [1,2]; the first also comes out next year in paper copy in the 3rd edition of Encyclopaedia Analytical Sciences, Written for the intelligent nonexpert, the science of the greenhouse effect and the most up-to-date data are presented in the first article . In summary, the two most significant secondary greenhouse gases remain CO2 and CH4, together they contribute c. 80-85% of the secondary greenhouse effect, and this percentage has not changed for the last 20-30 years. CH4 could indeed prove to be as serious a secondary greenhouse gas as CO2. However, the total radiative forcing which causes the increase in Planet Earth’s temperature has increased consistently over this time window, and the huge majority of the world’s scientists now accept that we have a huge environmental issue on our hands that will not disappear. In the second article , suggestions are made as what issues people should think about from individual, government and world positions. The author is a practicing member of the Quaker (Society of Friends) religion, and throughout he comes to this problem from a moral viewpoint. This will not be a talk about religion, but rather how the six Quaker Testimonies (i.e. way we should lead our lives) on Truth and Integrity, Social Justice, Equality, Simplicity, Peace and Sustainability lead him in certain personal directions, and what advice he might give to Governments and World organisations (e.g. the United Nations). A concise and simple explanation of the Quaker religion in the UK in 2017 is written elsewhere ; much of it may surprise many delegates!.
The average temperature of the Earth (red) and the concentration level of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere (in red) during the recent history since AD1880.
A rise of 1 F is equivalent to 0.56 oC. From a scientific viewpoint, there is no proven correlation between the two sets of data.
Paderborn University, Germany
Time : 09:35-10:10
Alexander Lorenz graduated from the Centre of Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn (Germany) in 2010 and has since conducted research at other leading institutions. He is the research Group Leader in the Department of Chemistry at the Paderborn University, Germany. His present research interests are photo generated polymerliquid crystal hybrids and inorganic-organic liquid crystal hybrids with high responsiveness and fast performance. He has completed Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)- (a German research funding organization) -Research Fellowships in the Department of Engineering of the University of Cambridge UK and TU Berlin; led research projects funded by TU Berlin, DFG, and the US Air Force Office of Scientific research at TU Berlin and Paderborn University, and has (since 2017) acted as temporary replacement to fill the Full Chair Professorship for macromolecular chemistry and molecular materials at the Institute of Chemistry of the University of Kassel, Germany.
Liquid crystals (LCs) are well-known for their highly sensitive and tuneable optical properties. However, inorganic-organic hybrids with localized, light induced (opto-optical) responses and LC composites with fast or threshold-free switching are sought after. In addition to conventional modulation of the intensity, the main goal is to tune optical phase shifts of incident light waves. Localized optical responses can be triggered by the use of light, to allow for optical manipulation. Photo generated polymer can yield in highly responsive, fast LC composites for future displays and adaptive optics.
Figure 1: Schematic of a polymer network LC sample and polarized optical micrographs of a hybridized sample with photoinduced, erasable defect pattern.
University of Graz, Austria
Time : 10:10-10:45
Leonhard Grill is currently a Professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Graz, Austria, since 2013. He studied physics at the University of Graz and did his PhD thesis at the Laboratorio TASC in Trieste (Italy) in experimental surface physics on electron scattering in ultrathin metal films (group of Silvio Modesti). He is an experimental physicist specialized in the study of single functional molecules. By using scanning probe microscopy, his group is able to image and manipulate individual atoms and molecules adsorbed at surfaces and to characterize specific molecular functions. In this way electronic, electrical, optical or mechanical properties of individual molecules are controlled with the goal to obtain fundamental physical and chemical understanding of these processes. He received the Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology (2011).
Molecular nanotechnology aims to use functional molecules as individual machines or electronic devices. Hence, their selfassembly into pre-defined architectures and the full control over each individual molecule are key objectives. Various examples of functional molecules, ranging from molecular wires to molecular switches and machines that are studied and manipulated at the single-molecule level by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, will be discussed in this presentation. Molecular wires or molecular nodes with different conjugation pathways can be fabricated from specifically designed molecular building blocks that are connected to two-dimensional networks or one-dimensional chains. In the case of molecular switches, the switching rate can be tuned up and down by only one single atom in the vicinity of the molecule. The same effect is then extended to molecular assemblies where cooperative effects in single molecules are directly observed. The switching process can also be used to trigger a molecular motor where the lateral translation of molecular machines on a surface can be enhanced by light of specific wavelengths that match the absorption properties of the molecule. By comparing molecules with and without a motor unit, the enhanced motion can be directly assigned to the motor that is incorporated in the molecules. STM manipulation gives detailed insight into the physical and chemical processes at the single-molecule level by varying the relevant parameters as tip height over the surface, bias voltage or tunneling current. While the speed is typically of minor importance in these experiments, it becomes crucial when studying so-called nanocars. By implementing a dipole moment into the molecular structure, we could show that very efficient and therefore fast manipulation can be realized. The key property is that no continuous imaging is required, rendering the manipulation fast enough to win the first nanocars race.